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Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
Ambroise Paré, the greatest surgeon of his day, publishes an account of how to treat gunshot wounds       
Artificial hand designed by Ambroise Paré
Wellcome Library, London
Gabriele Fallopia invents the condom      
Swiss peasant family with 15 children

Wellcome Library, London
c. 1580
William Chamberlen invents the obstetrical forceps      
Chamberlen forceps

Wellcome Library, London
The first documented Caesarian section in which the mother survives      
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
William Harvey publishes a short book, De Motu Cordis, proving the circulation of the blood       
Narrative history in HistoryWorld    
Samuel Pepys has a two-ounce stone cut from his bladder, in an operation carried out at home in the presence of his family      
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
The first recorded attempt at blood transfusion, at the Royal Society in London, proves that the idea is feasible       
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
The first successful human blood transfusion is achieved in Paris by Jean Baptiste Denis, apparently saving the life of a 15-year-old boy       
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, observing the Turkish practice of inoculation against smallpox, submits her infant son to the treatment       
Narrative history in HistoryWorld    
English obstetrician William Smellie introduces scientific midwifery as a result of his researches into childbirth