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c. 50
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
The Roman surgeon Cornelius Celsus describes in De Medicina how to cut stones from a patient's bladder       
Narrative history in HistoryWorld    
A new doctor, Galen, is appointed to look after the gladiators at Pergamum      
c. 950
Narrative history in HistoryWorld    
Medieval Europe's first institute of higher education is established, with the founding of the medical school at Salerno      
c. 1000
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
The first illustrated manual of surgery is written by Abul Kasim, an Arab physician in Cordoba       
c. 1020
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
The Persian scholar Avicenna, author of encyclopedic works on philosophy and medicine, spends the last part of his life in Isfahan       
Conjoined twins Mary and Eliza Chulkhurst are born in Biddenden, in Kent      
Conjoined female twins
Wellcome Library, London
c. 1489
Narrative history in HistoryWorld    
Leonardo da Vinci begins an unprecedented series of detailed anatomical drawings, based on corpses dissected in Rome      
c. 1500
European diseases bring death on a massive scale to an American population that has no immunity     
Narrative history in HistoryWorld    
Eucharius Rösslin publishes the first textbook for midwives, later translated into English as The byrthe of mankynde      
Woman on a birthing stool

Wellcome Library, London
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
Flemish anatomist Andreas Vesalius publishes a seven-volume work which for the first time lays bare human anatomy