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c. 2500 BC
A stone pestle and mortar is made at the neolithic site of Merthyr Mawr, in the Vale of Glamorgan in Wales      
Stone pestle and mortar, from the Vale of Glamorga
Swansea Museum

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Narrative history in HistoryWorld    
Agricola, appointed Roman governor of Britain in AD 77, establishes Chester as a stronghold from which to control the Welsh tribes      
c. 580
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
St David founds monasteries in Wales and makes his base at Mynyw, a place now known after him as St David's       
c. 780
Narrative history in HistoryWorld    
The Anglo-Saxons have a name for the Celts west of Offa's dyke - wealas or Welsh, meaning foreigners      
Narrative history in HistoryWorld    
Rhodri Mawr, or Rhodri the Great, is widely accepted as king of almost the whole of Wales      
c. 1080
Narrative history in HistoryWorld    
Norman earls are given territories on the marches of Wales, with the specific task of raiding their neighbours      
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
The English king, Henry II, acknowledges Rhys ap Gruffydd as the lord of south Wales       
c. 1200
The longbow, a weapon of great use to English armies, is probably first developed in Wales      
Sketch of a Welsh archer still shown with a short bow, 13th century
National Archives, Kew
c. 1220
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
Llewellyn ap Iorwerth acquires such authority over other Welsh chieftains that he is informally referred to as the prince of Wales       
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
In a treaty agreed at Shrewsbury, the English king Henry III acknowledges Llewellyn ap Gruffydd as the prince of Wales