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A papal delegate (from Leo IX) excommunicates Cerularius, the Patriarch of Constantinople, and the delegate is excommunicated in retaliation, launching a lasting East-West Schism        
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Pope Gregory VII decrees that only the church may make ecclesiastical appointments, thus initiating the investiture controversy between pope and emperor      
The emperor Henry IV stands as a penitent outside the pope's castle at Canossa, so as to be released from excommunication.       
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Pope Urban II preaches the first crusade, urging the Christians of Europe to march east to recover Jerusalem from the Muslims       
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The Knights of St John of Jerusalem become an established order under papal protection      
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Pope Innocent III and the second Lateran council outlaw the crossbow as a weapon causing unacceptable devastation       
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The fall of Edessa prompts the pope, Eugenius III, to call for a second crusade to defend the Latin kingdom        
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The murder of the pope's legate to Toulouse provokes the Albigensian crusade, which aims to wipe out the Catharist heresy       
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The Dominicans are formally established by Pope Honorius III as Ordo Fratrum Praedicatorum, the Order of the Friars Preachers        
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Frederick II is crowned Holy Roman emperor by a somewhat reluctant pope, Honorius III