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49 BC
Julius Caesar moves fast to drive Pompey's supporters from Italy and to crush forces loyal to him in Spain       
46 BC
Julius Caesar goes to Africa to confront the remainder of Pompey's forces, and defeats them at Thapsus – but two of Pompey's sons escape to Spain        
45 BC
In the final act of his long struggle with supporters of Pompey, Julius Caesar defeats their last survivors at Munda in Spain        
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
A rebellion in Spain prompts such chaos that Rome has four emperors within a year, after the suicide of Nero in 68       
c. 105
Narrative history in HistoryWorld   
A bridge is built over the river Tagus at Alcántara and stands today as a fine example of Roman technology     
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
The Vandals cross the Rhine into Gaul and move into Spain, from which the Visigoths soon push them on into Africa       
c. 550
Narrative history in HistoryWorld    
Most of Spain is by now in the hands of the Visigoths, though for a while the Byzantines win back territories in the south      
Narrative history in HistoryWorld      
Muslim Arabs cross from north Africa into Spain and drive the Visigoths from Toledo        
Narrative history in HistoryWorld     
Retreating from the Arab onslaught, the Visigoths establish a kingdom of last resort in the extreme north of Spain, in Asturias       
Narrative history in HistoryWorld      
Abd-ar-Rahman, escaping from the massacre of his family in Syria, establishes a new Umayyad dynasty at Cordoba