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  Medicine through time
 Peruvian surgeons cut holes in skulls c. -2000
 
 Plastic surgery in India c. -550
 
 Indian doctors identify three humours c. -550
 
 Doctors swear Hippocratic oath c. -400
 
 Four humours in human body say Greeks c. -380
 
 Human vivisection in Alexandria c. -280
 
 Acupuncture in China c. -100
 
 Roman surgery on bladder c. 50
 
 Galen is doctor to gladiators 158
 
 Medical school at Salerno c. 950
 
 Arab manual of surgery c. 1000
 
 First anaesthetic c. 1265
 
 Lens and spectacles invented 1268
 
 Black Death devastates Europe 1348
 
 Leonardo dissects corpses c. 1489
 
 Vesalius looks beneath the skin 1533
 
 Vesalius reveals anatomy 1543
 
 Surgeon's guide to gunshot wounds 1545
 
 Heart is a pump says Harvey 1628
 
 Pepys has stone cut from bladder 1658
 
 Malpighi sees smallest blood vessels 1661
 
 Royal Society founded in London 1662
 
 Blood transfusion works - on dogs 1665
 
 Human blood transfusion in Paris 1667
 
 Spermatozoa sighted 1677
 
 Fahrenheit takes temperature 1714
 
 English baby inoculated in Turkey 1717
 
 Celsius goes centigrade 1742
 
 Smellie breakthrough for midwives 1752
 
 Doctor taps patients 1761
 
 Pathology gets scientific 1761
 
 Cook finds solution to scurvy 1775
 
 Franklin needs bifocals 1784
 
 Foxglove for dropsy 1785
 
 Jenner vaccinates with cowpox 1796
 
 French physician devises stethoscope 1816
 
 Britain suffers first cholera epidemic c. 1832
 
 Anaesthetic in childbirth c. 1847
 
 Cholera linked to contaminated water c. 1854
 
 Nightingale sails east 1854
 
 Mary Seacole cares for sick in Crimea 1855
 
 Pasteur identifies germs as cause of disease c. 1857
 
 London's Great Stink 1858
 
 New sewers for London 1859
 
 Lister proves value of antisepsis 1865
 
 Koch discovers TB bacillus c. 1882
 
 Germany pioneers state welfare c. 1885
 
 First contact lenses 1887
 
 Old-age pension in Britain 1908