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  Medicine through time
 Peruvian surgeons cut holes in skulls c. -2000
 Plastic surgery in India c. -550
 Indian doctors identify three humours c. -550
 Doctors swear Hippocratic oath c. -400
 Four humours in human body say Greeks c. -380
 Human vivisection in Alexandria c. -280
 Acupuncture in China c. -100
 Roman surgery on bladder c. 50
 Galen is doctor to gladiators 158
 Medical school at Salerno c. 950
 Arab manual of surgery c. 1000
 First anaesthetic c. 1265
 Lens and spectacles invented 1268
 Black Death devastates Europe 1348
 Leonardo dissects corpses c. 1489
 Vesalius looks beneath the skin 1533
 Vesalius reveals anatomy 1543
 Surgeon's guide to gunshot wounds 1545
 Heart is a pump says Harvey 1628
 Pepys has stone cut from bladder 1658
 Malpighi sees smallest blood vessels 1661
 Royal Society founded in London 1662
 Blood transfusion works - on dogs 1665
 Human blood transfusion in Paris 1667
 Spermatozoa sighted 1677
 Fahrenheit takes temperature 1714
 English baby inoculated in Turkey 1717
 Celsius goes centigrade 1742
 Smellie breakthrough for midwives 1752
 Doctor taps patients 1761
 Pathology gets scientific 1761
 Cook finds solution to scurvy 1775
 Franklin needs bifocals 1784
 Foxglove for dropsy 1785
 Jenner vaccinates with cowpox 1796
 French physician devises stethoscope 1816
 Britain suffers first cholera epidemic c. 1832
 Anaesthetic in childbirth c. 1847
 Cholera linked to contaminated water c. 1854
 Nightingale sails east 1854
 Mary Seacole cares for sick in Crimea 1855
 Pasteur identifies germs as cause of disease c. 1857
 London's Great Stink 1858
 New sewers for London 1859
 Lister proves value of antisepsis 1865
 Koch discovers TB bacillus c. 1882
 Germany pioneers state welfare c. 1885
 First contact lenses 1887
 Old-age pension in Britain 1908