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 phalanx - in Greek warfare
  - used by the Swiss
  - as a utopian Fourier community
 Phanariots - Greek officials
 Phantom of the Opera (musical)
 Pharisees - in the Sanhedrin
 pharmaceutical industry - history
 Pharmaceutical Society - founded
 pharmacies - in Baghdad
 pharmacology - history
 pharmacopoeias - in medieval Europe
  - eighteenth century
 pharmacy - organisation in eighteenth century
 Pharmacy Act (1852) - history
 Pharos - lighthouse at Alexandria
 Pharsalus - battle in 48 BC
 Phèdre - by Racine
 Pheidippides - runs from Athens to Sparta
 Phidias - statue of Athena for Parthenon
  - statue of Zeus at Olympia
  - workshop at Olympia
 Philadelphia - and William Penn
  - and the Continental Congress
  - captured by British in 1777
  - departure of the British in 1778
  - constitutional convention in 1787
 Philiki Etaireia - Greek independence
 Philip I - king of Castile
 Philip I of Portugal - Philip II of Spain
 Philip II, king of France
  - third crusade
 Philip II, king of Macedonia
  - his tomb at Vergina
 Philip II, king of Spain
  - marriage to Mary I
  - a year in England
  - and Naples and Sicily
  - and the throne of Portugal
  - and Titian
  - and Hieronymus Bosch
  - marries French princess
 Philip III - half-brother of Alexander
 Philip III - king of Spain
  - and Marie de Médicis
  - and Louis XIV
 Philip IV - king of France
  - and pope Boniface VIII
  - and the estates general
  - and the Templars
 Philip IV - king of Spain
  - and Elizabeth of France
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