©Wellcome Library, London

The brigantine slaver ‘Windward' on a transatlantic voyage from West Africa to America. The lower deck would have been packed to capacity with hundreds of men, women and children forced to endure foul air, meagre rations, inadequate sanitation or washing facilities, disease and chronic sea sickness. On a bad crossing, a slaver might lose half its human ‘cargo'.

Wood engraving by Smyth.