©Wellcome Library, London

In this illustration, a patient in a monastic hospital is being anaesthetised with the fumes from an alcoholic beverage.

Source: Disbold Schilling. Swiss chronicle, 1513. In Thomas E Keys. The development of anaesthesia, 1943. (Reprinted from Anesthesiology 1941. Vol 2, pages 552-574. Reproduced with kind permission of Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.