©Wellcome Library, London

The plants illustrated are yarrow (Achillea millefolium), named after Achilles who used it to heal his wounded soldiers); floxglove (Digitalis purpurea), used for centuries as a diuretic; cowslip (Primula officinalis), macerated and applied to bruises and inflamed areas; and Aaron's rod (Verbascum thapsus), the leaves of which made soothing compresses for neuralgic pain.

Source: Dioscorides. De medicinali materia libri sex, Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete. C Egenolph, Frankfort & Marburg 1543.