©National Archives

List of children from Auschwitz and Buchenwald to be re-located to Switzerland, 1945 Buchenwald was a German concentration camp, originally intended for political prisoners when it was set up in 1937. Situated to the north of Weimar, it was captured by American troops on April 13th 1945, its S.S. camp guards having fled. They found 20,000 survivors, all males, including 1,000 boys under the age of 14 years old. Most European nationalities were represented, including Russians, Poles, French, Czechs, Hungarians and even Spanish. Many were prominent Jews, about 4,000 according to one contemporary report which described the camp's mission as "an extermination factory".