©Wellcome Library, London

Surgeons attempting delicate eye surgery before the days of anaesthesia, faced a formidable task. This patient is tied to a chair, undoubtedly with his consent. When the Scottish surgeon, James Wardrop (1782-1869), attempted his first cataract extraction on a deaf-blind boy of 15, his exertions became so violent' that Wardrop was forced to stop the operation. Undaunted, he tried again some days later, when a wooden box, the sides of which moved on hinges, was folded round his body, and fixed by circular ropes; and in this way, notwithstanding a powerful resistance, he was placed on a table and kept quite steady'.

Line engraving, Germany.