©National Archives

Lord Baden-Powell, 1911 Photograph of Lord Baden-Powell (front row, third from the right) with a group of Scoutmasters at Ystalyfera, 15 July 1911. The scouts in the background are spinning their hats on sticks.

In 1907, Robert Baden-Powell ran a trial camp for boys at Brownsea Island in Dorset. This, together with his book, Aids to Scouting, proved a great success and he founded the Boy Scout movement the following year. He co-founded the Girl Guide movement in 1910 and was later named Chief Scout of the World.

Lord Baden-Powell also had a distinguished military career and was a colonel in the British Army during the Boer War (1899-1902). He became a national hero for his resolute defence of Mafeking during its 217-day siege and was immediately promoted to major general. He finally left the Army in 1910 as a lieutenant-general to devote his energies to the Scout movement.